Doctor Reza - The Specialist in Treatment of Lung Cancer

What is Lung Cancer?

Lung Cancer is a malignant growth sometimes called a neoplasm, tumour, or malignancy, which arises from the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body causing secondary growths called metastases. Cancers arising in other parts of the body can also spread to the lungs, and these are called lung secondaries or pulmonary metastases.

Causes of Lung Cancer

Human bodies are made up of tiny cells which normally repair and reproduce themselves. Sometimes, however, they develop in an abnormal way, forming lumps which are then called tumours. Lung cancer arises as a result of permanent changes to cells lining the bronchial airways. The most common causes of these changes are:

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to asbestos
  • Marijuana smoke
  • Exposure to a number of other chemicals
  • Genetics.
Types Of Lung Cancer

The common types of lung cancer are:

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCLC). The first three are grouped as non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) because the treatment of these is the same. NSCLC accounts for approximately 75% of all lung cancers.
Symptoms Of Lung Cancer

In its early stages, lung cancer usually causes no noticeable symptom. As it grows, it can affect the surrounding lung tissue, causing such symptoms as cough, blood-stained phlegm (sputum), breathlessness and chest pain. The cancer can also release substances that reduce appetite and cause weight loss with tiredness. Unless detected and treated early, lung cancer will eventually spread to other parts of the body, and this can cause further problems such as abnormal lumps, organ failure, and pain.

Detection of Lung Cancer
  • Abnormal chest x-ray which may have been taken for other reasons
  • Detecting cancer cells in the phlegm/ sputum
  • Sometimes this biopsy is done by a procedure called bronchoscopy
  • Sometimes a needle can be passed through the chest wall into the cancer under x-ray control
  • X-ray scans and blood tests help to define the extent of spread of the cancer.
Treatment Of Lung Cancer

The treatment depends on the type of lung cancer and how much the cancer has spread within or outside lungs. Assessment of patients is also done to see if they are fit for the treatment.

Surgery is the most effective treatment for the cancer which has not spread beyond the chest. For the tumour which has spread beyond the chest, operation is not possible. So, radiotherapy and sometimes, chemotherapy are used.

NSCLC that has already spread beyond the chest or has come back into the chest following surgery or radiotherapy cannot be cured, and treatment in these situations is aimed at relieving symptoms, improving the quality of life, and in some cases prolonging life. These treatments include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, pain killing medications, and other medications to control symptoms.

SCLC is generally treated combination of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Unfortunately less the 5% of the patients with SCLC can be cured.

Treatment can be both Curative and Palliative. As a specialist in treating lung cancer, in Kolkata, I can advise you about the type of lung cancer you have and what treatment will suit you best. Treatment can be Curative which, aims to remove all the cancer cells and thereby ensures a long-term survival rate.

Treatment can be Curative which, aims to remove all the cancer cells and thereby ensures a long-term survival rate.

On the other hand, palliative treatment aims to relieve or prevent symptoms but does not set out to remove all the cancer tissue completely. This improves the quality of your life and may also prolong your life, but does not achieve a long-lasting cure.

Curability

The outcome depends on:

  • The cell type
  • How far it has spread
  • The personís level of health
  • Suitability for surgery
  • If NSCLC is surgically removed at an early stage, there is a cure rate of over 70%
  • For more advanced NSCLC but limited to the chest, the cure rate with combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is less than 50%
  • NSCLC that has spread outside the chest, together with SCLC, is far less satisfactory
  • As many cancers have already spread at the time of diagnosis, only around 15% of all lung cancers are cured.
Prevention
  • Stop smoking
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